Broad Bean (Vicia Faba L.)

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Origin 

The borad bean originated in Western Asia, believed to be around 6000 years BC. Later it spread to Europe, Africa and Central Asia. 

Consumption 

It is a highly nutritious, dietary vegetable classified as leguminous. The protein in beans is very well absorbed by the human body. Beans are used in a variety of dishes, side dishes, stews, boils and stews. They are suitable for soups, salads and mixed dishes. As a delicacy, they are served with beer. Bean flour is added to bread. Immature pods are eaten boiled in salted water. Beans are best eaten when ripe but not yet hardened. They should be eaten only when well cooked. Canned beans retain their nutrients and vitamins well.

Broad beans
Broad beans

Nutritional value 

Beans contain complete protein, carbohydrates (starch, fiber), minerals: potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, phosphorus, iron, manganese, zinc, selenium, beta-carotene, Vitamins C, K and B1, B2, B3, and amino acids which are not synthesized by the human organism. Very suitable for vegetarians. This vegetable is recommended for diseases of the liver, kidneys and intestines. It is not suitable for gout sufferers. Beans contain 341 kcal per 100 g.

Varieties 

Early and medium-early varieties are cultivated. Barrek’. Medium-early variety. Sål greenish-white, very tasty. ‘Belaruskije’. Medium-early variety; not demanding in growing conditions. Seeds yellowish-white ‘Bonus’. Medium-early variety. Greenish-white seeds, fresh, suitable for processing. “Karmazyn’. Medium-early variety. Să. klos reddish-brown. “Russkiye chiornye’. Medium-early variety, tolerant to low temperatures. The pods have no parchment layer. 50 days after germination, can be used with pods. Seeds are dark purple, black. Windsor. A medium-late variety. The vegetative period is about 120 days. White windsor’. A medium-late variety. Seeds are greenish-white.

Location 

Suitable for an open, windy and sunny position.

Soil and substrates 

Beans grow well on humusy, moderate to heavy, moist, neutral and slightly alkaline soils. It does not like acid soils. If grown under high rates of fertilized vegetables, no fertilizer can be applied, otherwise, fertilize with compost (0,5 kg/m2). All vegetables are suitable as pre-seeders, except early vegetables (peas, beans, broad beans).

Nutrient requirements 

The soil must be rich in nutrients.

Broad beans
Broad beans

Sowing and planting 

Sowing into the soil from the end of March to mid-May. The seeds are placed 4-6 cm deep at 10 cm intervals, with 40-60 cm row spacing. Colima should be sown in a nesting pattern with 2-3 seeds every 15-30 cm. Sown seeds are rolled. The seeds germinate when the soil warms up to 6 °C. They are not frost-hardy and the young seedlings can withstand a frost of -4 °C. The beans can be grown as seedlings and are not afraid of transplanting. Sown from mid-February onwards and transplanted into the soil at the end of March. Beans can be planted with warm-season vegetables such as cucumbers, tomatoes, beans and peppers. They can be grown together with other vegetables. The roots of the bean add nitrogen to the soil and increase its permeability. 20-30 g of seeds per m2 are needed.

Plant care 

Water abundantly when the soil surface dries out – beans do not tolerate drought and heat. Mulch keeps the soil moist. Water twice a week (10-151/m’) when the beans are flowering and ripening pods. Then shallow loosening of the loose soil and a little sprinkling. While the plants are young, additional fertilization with a fermented nettle solution is applied.

When the plants have produced 6 pairs of true leaves, the plants are sprayed (with water, sometimes household soap, wormwood, bittersweet, onion anthrax) in the first half of the day. This should also be done after each period of high sun. For aphids, a garlic tea extract (75 g of crushed garlic cloves in 10 1 of water) should be sprayed for 3 consecutive days, repeated as necessary. Once the pods have formed, the tops are broken off – aphids like soft tops. Removing them prevents the plants from bending and allows the pods to ripen faster. It is recommended to use supports or fencing for taller bean varieties.

Pests and diseases 

Beans are affected by whiteflies, thrips, bean aphids and grain aphids, rust, brown spot and ascochyta.

Yield 

The beans reach primary maturity in August. Harvesting takes place in September when the pods have turned black and the leaves have fallen. The beans are dried immediately after harvesting as they blacken quickly. Drying can be done in cloth bags hung in a well-ventilated room. Store in a dry room at a temperature below 10 °C.

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