Sugar Cane (Saccharum officinarum) is a perennial grass species with a sugary stem that can be chewed on, or refined into sugar. In North Florida, it has historically been used to make (cane) syrup.
It enjoys moist soil that is high in organic matter, and if you can get it, clay. I have been advised to fertilize it with “tobacco” fertilizer with an N-P-K of 4-8-12. If you just use lots of manure, you should be ok. Make sure you have plenty of lime in the soil too.
In our area, sugar cane is historically harvested as the first frost of the year approaches.
The leafy area on the top and the old leaves are stripped from the canes, and the canes are buried under piles of this refuse (called shucks) to keep them safe from the frost until they can be ground for juice, and the juice boiled into syrup.
The roots will re-sprout the following spring. Apparently the crop is best the first or second or third years after planting, but yields decline after that, and by about seven years tops, the roots should be dug up, and the crop replanted.
More photos on Flickr: https://www.flickr.com/search?sort=relevance&text=Saccharum%20officinarum